Metabolic Alkalosis

What is metabolic alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis is a condition that occurs when your blood becomes overly alkaline. Alkaline is the opposite of acidic.

Our bodies function best when the acidic-alkaline balance of our blood is just slightly tilted toward the alkaline.

Alkalosis occurs when your body has either:

too many alkali-producing bicarbonate ions

too few acid-producing hydrogen ions

Many people don’t experience any symptoms of metabolic alkalosis, so you may not know that you have it.

Metabolic alkalosis is one of the four main types of alkalosis. There are two kinds of metabolic alkalosis:

hloride-responsive alkalosis results from loss of hydrogen ions, usually by vomiting or dehydration.

Chloride-resistant alkalosis results when your body retains too many bicarbonate (alkaline) ions, or when there’s a shift of hydrogen ions from your blood to your cells.


Symptoms of metabolic alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis may not show any symptoms. People with this type of alkalosis more often complain of the underlying conditions that are causing it. These can include:

Vomiting,   diarrhea,  swelling in the lower legs (peripheral edema), fatigue,   agitation, disorientation,  seizures,  coma,


Nephrotic Syndrome


Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine.

Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.


Signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome include:

Severe swelling (edema), particularly around your eyes and in your ankles and feet

Foamy urine, which may be caused by excess protein in your urine

Weight gain due to excess fluid retention


Loss of appetite,




Neurogenic Bladder


What is neurogenic bladder

Your bladder relies on muscles to contract and release when you’re ready to urinate. Your brain typically regulates this process, but sometimes the message that you need to urinate isn’t sent from your brain to your bladder. This is a condition known as neurogenic bladder. Treatment for this condition can help you regain control.


The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion. This coordinated activity is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. [1] Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to urinary bladder malfunction due to neurologic dysfunction emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury.



What are the symptoms of neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder causes you to lose control over your ability to urinate. This can cause you to urinate too much or not enough, both of which can have harmful consequences.

Neurogenic bladder symptoms include:

a dribbling stream when urinating

an inability to fully empty your bladder

straining during urination

a loss of bladder control

increased urinary tract infections (UTIs)

leaking urine

difficulty determining when your bladder is full




What is nocturia

Nocturia, or nocturnal polyuria, is the medical term for excessive urination at night. During sleep time, your body produces less urine that is more concentrated. This means that most people don’t need to wake up during the night to urinate and can sleep uninterrupted for 6 to 8 hours.

If you need to wake up two times or more per night to urinate, you may have nocturia. Besides being disruptive to your sleep, nocturia can also be a sign of an underlying medical condition,

Symptoms of Nocturia

Nocturia or frequent nighttime urination may occur only occasionally or nightly. Symptoms of nocturia include excessive urination (need to urinate too much fluid), frequent urination (too many visits to the bathroom for various reasons), urinary urgency (need to urinate sometimes without much result), or reduced urine. Nocturia may result when a person's normal "body clock" allows for daytime urination pattern to occur at night. Sometimes, nocturia may simply be the result of drinking too many fluids, especially caffeine, before going to bed.




Nocturnal Enuresis


Bed-wetting — also called nighttime incontinence or nocturnal enuresis — is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which staying dry at night can be reasonably expected.

Soggy sheets and pajamas — and an embarrassed child — are a familiar scene in many homes. But don't despair. Bed-wetting isn't a sign of toilet training gone bad. It's often just a normal part of a child's development.

Generally, bed-wetting before age 7 isn't a concern. At this age, your child may still be developing nighttime bladder control.

By adolescence, only 4 percent of boys and 2 percent of girls wet the bed; the figures fall to 1.5 percent and 0.5 percent by age eighteen. So you can appreciate how distressing it is to be one of those teenagers who is still experiencing urinary incontinence at night.

If bed-wetting continues, treat the problem with patience and understanding. Lifestyle changes, bladder training, moisture alarms and sometimes medication may help reduce bed-wetting.


Most kids are fully toilet trained by age 5, but there's really no target date for developing complete bladder control. Between the ages of 5 and 7, bed-wetting remains a problem for some children. After 7 years of age, a small number of children still wet the bed,




Overactive Bladder


Overactive bladder causes a sudden urge to urinate. The urge may be difficult to stop, and overactive bladder may lead to the involuntary loss of urine (urge incontinence).

If you have an overactive bladder, you may feel embarrassed, isolate yourself, or limit your work and social life. The good news is that a brief evaluation can determine whether there's a specific cause for your overactive bladder symptoms.

Management of overactive bladder often begins with behavioral strategies, such as fluid schedules, timed voiding and bladder-holding techniques using your pelvic floor. If these initial efforts don't help enough with your overactive bladder symptoms, medications are available.

Overactive bladder care at Mayo Clinic


With an overactive bladder, you may:

Feel a sudden urge to urinate that's difficult to control

Experience urge incontinence — the involuntary loss of urine immediately following an urgent need to urinate

Urinate frequently, usually eight or more times in 24 hours

Awaken two or more times in the night to urinate (nocturia)




Polycystic Kidney




Polycystic kidney

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage your kidneys.

Polycystic kidney disease also can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. The disease can cause serious complications, including high blood pressure and kidney failure.

PKD varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. Lifestyle changes and treatments might help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications.


Polycystic kidney disease symptoms can include:

High blood pressure,   Back or side pain,  Headache,  A feeling of fullness in your abdomen, Increased size of your abdomen due to enlarged kidneys,  Blood in your urine,




Polyuria - Frequent Urination

Frequent urination means having an urge to pass urine more often than usual. It can disrupt one's normal routine, interrupt the sleep cycle, and it can be a sign of an underlying medical condition.

Polyuria is defined as urinating more than 3 litres a day. Polyuria is a condition where the body urinates more than usual and passes excessive or abnormally large amounts of urine each time you urinate.

Polyuria is defined as the frequent passage of large volumes of urine - more than 3 litres a day compared to the normal daily urine output in adults of about one to two litres.

It is one of the main symptoms of diabetes (both type 1and type 2 diabetes) and can lead to severe dehydration, which if left untreated can affect kidney function. 



 symptoms that may need further attention include:

pain or discomfort while urinating

urine that is bloody, cloudy, or of an unusual color

gradual loss of bladder control, or urinary incontinence

difficulty urinating despite the urge

discharge from the vagina or penis

an increase in appetite or thirst

fever or chills

nausea or vomiting

low back or side pain