Viral Hepatitis


 Viral hepatitis

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue. These are five types of viral hepatitis.    Hepatitis A,   Hepatitis B,    Hepatitis C,  Hepatitis D,   Hepatitis E,



Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:


flu-like symptoms

dark urine

pale stool

abdominal pain

loss of appetite

unexplained weight loss

yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice



Alcoholic Liver


Alcoholic liver disease is a result of overconsuming alcohol that damages the liver, leading to a build-up of fats, inflammation, and scarring. It can be fatal.

The liver is one in all the most advanced organs within the human body, with over five hundred functions.

These embody filtering out blood toxins, storing energy, making hormones and proteins, and regulating cholesterol and blood sugar.

Liver damage can affect the whole body. Once damage begins, it can take a long time to become noticeable, as the liver is generally highly effective at regenerating and repairing itself. Often, by the time the damage is found, it is irreversible.


Once alcoholic disease progresses, its symptoms become easier to recognize.

The a lot of distinctive signs of later-stage liver disease embody the following:

jaundice, or a yellow tint of the whites of the eyes and the skin

edama or swelling of the lower limbs

a build-up of fluid in the abdomen, known as ascites

fever and shivering

extremely itchy skin

fingernails that curve excessively, known as clubbing

losing a significant amount of weight

general weakness and wasting muscles

blood in vomit and stools

bleeding and bruising more easily

more sensitive reactions to alcohol and drugs






ascites is AN abnormal accumulation of fluid inside the (peritoneal) cavity. Ascites is caused by a range of diseases and conditions, as an examplecirrhosis of the liver of the liver, cancer insidethe abdomen, congestive heart disease, and TB disease.

Ascites occurs when fluid accumulates in the abdomen. This build-up happens between 2 membrane layers that along structure the serosa, a smooth sac that contains the body's organs.

Ascites is extremely uncomfortable and causes nausea, tiredness, shortness of breath, and a sense of being full. It is usual to possess a small quantity of fluid within the serous membrane cavity.


What are the symptoms of ascites?

  • Ascites is commonly painful and generally causes a person to feel:
  • nauseated
  • less hungry than usual
  • tired
  • breathless
  • urinary urgency and constipation
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Changes to the belly button
  • Hemorrhoids, which causes painful swelling near the anus
  • Ankle swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased appetite



Biliary Atresia

What Is Biliary Atresia?

Biliary Atresia is a fluid made by the liver. Normally the digestive fluid ducts take digestive fluid to the little bowel. Bile helps with digestion and also carries waste product.

Biliary atresia may be a rare sickness of the liver and digestive fluid ducts that happens in infants. Symptoms of the sickness look or develop regarding 2 to eight weeks when birth. Cells within the liver produce liquid called bile. Bile helps to digest fat.  It conjointly carries waste product from the liver to the intestines for excretion.

When a baby has biliary abnormalcy, the gall ducts within the liver area unit blocked. Bile becomes backed up in the liver. This damages the liver. Many vital body functions also are affected.

There are two types of biliary atresia:

  • It seems when birth, most frequently once a babyis regarding two to four weeks old.

  • Fetal biliary atresia. This is less common. It seems whereas a baby continues to be developing within the mother’s female internal reproductive organ.


  • Jaundice.

  • Itchiness.

  • Pale stool.

  • Dark or orange urine
  • .
    Swollen abdomen.
  • Poor absorption of nutrients inflicting delay in growth and weight loss.





What is cholestasis

Cholestasis is a liver disease. It happens once the flow of digestive fluid from your liver is reduced or blocked.

Bile is fluid made by your liver that aids within the digestion of food, particularly fats.  When gall flow is altered, it will cause a buildup of haematoidin.

Bilirubin is a pigment produced by your liver and excreted from your body via bile.

There are two types of cholestasis:

  • intrahepatic cholestasis and
  • extrahepatic cholestasis



  • jaundice, which is a yellowing of your skin and the white of your eyes
  • dark urine
  • light-coloured stool
  • pain in your abdomen
  • fatigue
  • nausea
  • excessive itching






It is a progressive sickness, developing slowly over More Year. If it's allowed to continue, the buildup of connective tissue will eventually stop liver perform.For liver disease to develop, long-term, continuous injury to the liver has to occur.

When healthy liver tissue is destroyed and replaced by connective tissue, the condition becomes serious, as a result of it will begin block the flow of blood through the liver.


Pain on the upper abdomen.
itchy skin
loss of appetite
loss of bodyweight
pain or tenderness within the space wherever the liver is found

red or blotchy palms



Cystic Fibrosis


Cystic fibrosis is an genetic disease that causes severe injury to the lungs, systema digestorium and different organs within the body.

Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that manufacture mucous secretion, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery.

But in people with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas, a defective cistron causes the secretions to become sticky and thick.

Instead of acting as a lubricating substance, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, particularly within the lungs and exocrine gland.


Symptoms of cystic fibrosis

  • recurring chest infections
  • difficulty putting on weight
  • frequent, wet-sounding coughs
  • diarrhoea
  • occasional wheezing and shortness of breath



Fatty liver


Fatty liver is also known as hepatic steatosis. It happens when fat builds up in the liver. Having small amounts of fat in your liver is normal, but too much can become a health problem.

Your liver is that the second largest organ in your body. It helps process nutrients from food and drinks and filters harmful substances from your blood.

Too much fat in your liver will cause liver inflammation, which can damage your liver and create scarring. In severe cases, this scarring can lead to liver failure.

When liver disease develops in somebody WHO drinks more of alcohol, it’s called alcoholic fatty liver} disease (AFLD).



  • Enlarged livers

  • Fatigue

  • Pain in the upper right abdomen

  • Abdominal swelling (ascites)

  • Enlarged blood vessels just beneath the skin's surface

  • Enlarged breasts in men

  • Enlarged spleen

  • Red palms

  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)