mitral regurgitation


The mitral valve may be a heart valve that lies between the atrium sinistrum and heart ventricle. Mitral regurgitation is usually known as mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence. In mitral regurgitation the valve doesn't shut properly.

This causes blood to leak back (regurgitate) into the atrium sinistrum once the heart ventricle squeezes (contracts).

Basically, the a lot of open the valve remains, the more blood regurgitates and the more severe the problem.

“Mitral Valve regurgitation” is known that  blood are not going anywhere it must to. With this condition, some of it leaks backward instead of flowing out to the rest of your body.

You may feel tired and out of breath if you have got it. You may even have higher blood pressure and a buildup of fluid in your lungs.



  • Mild mitral regurgitation may not cause any symptoms.
  • However the symptoms related to a lot of severe mitral regurgitation include:
  • Shortness of breath, particularly with activity or after you lie
  • Tiredness
  • Heart palpitations
  • Swollen ankles (oedema)


Mitral Valve Prolapse

What Is Mitral Valve Prolapse?

The mitral valve may be a valve that lets blood ensue one chamber of the heart, the atrium cordis, to a different known as the heart ventricle.

In mitral valve prolapse, a part of the mitral valve slips backward loosely into the chamber known as the atrium cordis.

This happens once the most muscle, known as the heart ventricle, squeezes throughout every heartbeat.

Mitral valve prolapse differs from mitral valve stenosis. In mitral valve stenosis, the mitral valve is stiff and constricted.

Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse

Shortness of breath with exertion,
Swelling in the legs and feet,
Fluttering or rapid heartbeat called palpitations,

Shortness of breath,

especially with exercise,Dizziness,
Passing out or fainting , known as syncope,
Panic and anxiety,
Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet,




Myocardial infarction


Myocardial infarction is commonly called as ‘heart attack’. Like all muscles of the body, the muscles within the heart need constant provide of oxygen and nutrients for his or her functioning.

Myocardial ischaemia happens once blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing the guts muscle from receiving enough oxygen.

The reduced blood flow is sometimes the results of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries).

Myocardial anemia, additionally referred to as viscus anaemia, reduces the heart muscle's ability to pump blood. A sudden, severe blockage of one of the heart's artery can lead to a heart attack.

Myocardial anaemia may also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms. Treatment for cardiac muscle anaemia involves rising blood flow to the center muscle. Treatment may include medications, a procedure to open blocked arteries (angioplasty) or bypass surgery.



  • Neck or jaw pain
  • Shoulder or arm pain
  • A fast heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath when you are physically active
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sweating
  • Fatigue




A pacemaker could be a tiny device with 2 parts — a generator and wires (leads, or electrodes) — that is placed below the skin in your chest to assist management your heartbeat.

People may have a pacemaker for a range of reasons — principally because of one in every of a bunch of conditions known as arrhythmias, within which the heart's rhythm is abnormal.

Normal aging of the center might disrupt your vital sign, creating it beat too slowly.

Heart muscle injury ensuing from a coronary failure is another common reason behind disruptions of your heartbeat.


There are several different types of pacemaker.

The main types are:

single-chamber pacemaker – this has one wire, that is connected to either the correct atrium (upper heart chamber) or heart ventricle (lower heart chamber)

dual-chamber pacemaker – this has a pair of wires, that area unit connected to the correct atrium and heart ventricle

biventricular pacemaker – this has three wires, that area unit connected to the correct atrium, right ventricle and ventricle




Pulmonary valve stricture could be a condition within which a deformity on or close to your pulmonary valve narrows the pulmonary valve gap and slows the blood flow.

The semilunar valve is found between the lower right heart chamber (right ventricle) and therefore the pneumonic arteries.

Adults often have semilunar valve stricture as a complication of another malady, but mostly, pulmonary valve stricture develops before birth as a noninheritable heart defect.

Pulmonary valve stricture ranges from gentle and while not symptoms to severe. Mild pulmonary stenosis does not sometimes worsen over time, however moderate and severe cases might worsen and need surgery.

Fortunately, treatment is usually extremely successful , and the majority with pulmonary valve stricture will expect to steer traditional lives.



  • Pulmonary valve stenosis signs and symptoms may include:
  • Heart murmur — an abnormal whooshing sound heard employing a medical instrument, caused by turbulent blood flow
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath, especially during exertion
  • Chest pain
  • Loss of consciousness (fainting)


Blockage of Heart


What is heart Block

A healthy human heart beats at about sixty to a hundred times a moment. A heartbeat is one contraction of the heart muscles, that pushes blood round the body.

Normally, each heart muscle contraction is controlled by electrical signals that travel from the atria, or the higher chambers of the center, to the ventricles, or the lower chambers.

A partial arrhythmia happens once the electrical impulses ar delayed or stopped, preventing the heart from beating often.

A complete heart block is once the electrical signals stop fully. The heartbeat can drop to regarding forty times per minute. Even changes to impulses that last solely a fraction of a second will cause arrhythmia.

Heart block, AV bundle, or bundle branch block affects the electrical system of the center. It is completely different from arteria coronaria sickness, that affects the heart's blood vessels.

In heart block, the heart beats on an irregular basis and a lot of slowly than usual, potentially stopping for up to 20 seconds at a time.



  • slow or irregular heartbeats, or palpitations
  • shortness of breath
  • lightheadedness and fainting
  • pain or discomfort in the chest
  • difficulty in doing exercise, because of the shortage of blood being pumped up round the body
  • People with a heart block could seem healthy, however they'll have AN underlying heart issue..